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Kohli said that the force now has a combat aircraft which is flexible and can manoeuvre every situation so that IAF pilots can change their position and strike the enemy. He also said that the fighter plane has the capability of taking off vertically,which has "increased the IAF's power a lot".

The upgraded MiG aircraft can take off within five minutes of spotting a hostile jet trying to enter the Indian airspace and destroy it, he said. Moreover, in the legacy aircraft, we were restricted to the certain dimension, but we can now do air-to-air, air-to-ground and anti-shipping operation," said a pilot who flies MiG aircraft. The upgraded MiG has all latest features, including a glass cockpit having digital screens.

Old instruments in the legacy version of MiG 29 have been replaced with modern ones, Kohli added. In the Kargil War, the Adampur station played an important role in destroying enemy fortifications located at heights of 15, feet and above. In the war also, the Adampur base was an operationally dynamic base for the air campaign against Pakistan.

In the Indo-Pak war too, Adampur proved to be nemesis for the Pakistani misadventures as several squadrons inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy. Read more on Indian Air Force. Air Force Day. Follow us on.

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Download et app. Become a member. He was survived by his wife of 21 years, Marlene Alejandre, and his daughter Marlene, a university student. He was only 29 years old. Always interested in aviation and hoping to someday oversee the operations of a major airport , Costa earned his bachelor's degree at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and worked as a Training Specialist for the Dade County Aviation Department. During that semester he had obtained a coveted and highly competitive position with American Airlines.

Pablo Morales was born in Havana, Cuba, on 16 May On 5 August he fled the island on a raft and was rescued by the Brothers to the Rescue organization. As a result, he joined the organization as a volunteer and flew as copilot. Morales studied cartography and graduated as a geodesist.

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  8. The occupants of the two unarmed civilian planes received no warning of any type regarding their imminent destruction. The FAC was acting as an agent of Cuba when it committed the killings.

    The MiG A legacy well past its due date | ORF

    The incidents in which the victims were killed occurred in international airspace. The ICAO concluded that the aircraft were over international waters when they were shot down. The first plane was 18 miles off the Cuban coast when it was destroyed by FAC missiles; the second was These numbers place the airplanes a good distance from the 12 miles of territorial waters Cuba is allowed under international law. The practice of summary execution has been roundly condemned by the global community. Many international human rights conventions and declarations enshrine the right of all individuals to freedom from arbitrary or unjustifiable deprivation of life.

    The forbidding of extrajudicial executions thus raises to the level of imperative law a provision of international law that is so basic that it is binding on all members of the international community. The human rights rules that have been generally accepted and that therefore have been incorporated into national law cover such basic rights as the right not to be murdered, tortured, or in any way submitted to cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment and the right of freedom from arbitrary arrest.

    The ban on summary executions is universal and binding on states. A state violates international human rights law if, as state policy, it practices, encourages, or condones murder or allows the disappearance of individuals. And by refusing justice, the Cuban State is responsible for ignoring the right to a fair trial enshrined in Article XVIII of that international instrument. The State.

    The Commission also notes that to date the State has not disputed the facts set forth in the complaint, in spite of the series of notes asking it to do so. Competence of the Commission and formal requirements for admissibility. The Commission is competent ratione materiae to hear the case at hand since it involves violations of rights enshrined in the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man.

    Under the Charter, all member states pledge to respect the essential rights of individuals. In the case of states not parties to the Convention, the rights in question are those established in the American Declaration, which is a source of international obligations. Moreover, the claim is not pending any other international settlement procedure, nor does it reproduce any other petition that the Commission has previously examined.

    The Commission is also competent ratione personae , since Article 26 of its Regulations provides that "[a] ny person or group of persons or nongovernmental entity legally recognized in one or more of the member states of the Organization may submit petitions to the Commission, in accordance with these Regulations, on one's own behalf or on behalf of third persons, with regard to alleged violations of a human right recognized, as the case may be, in the American Convention on Human Rights or in the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man.

    The Commission has already stated on numerous occasions that the intent of the Organization of American States in its "Exclusion of the Present Government of Cuba from Participation in the Inter-American System" [12] was not to leave the Cuban people without protection. The exclusion of that government from the regional system in no way means that it can fail to meet its international obligations in matters of human rights. Consequently, the Commission bases its analysis on the evidence at its disposal and on Article 42 of its Regulations. In terms of its competence ratione loci , clearly the Commission is competent with respect to human rights violations that occur within the territory of OAS member states, whether or not they are parties to the Convention.

    It should be specified, however, that under certain circumstances the Commission is competent to consider reports alleging that agents of an OAS member state have violated human rights protected in the inter-American system, even when the events take place outside the territory of that state. In fact, the Commission would point out that, in certain cases, the exercise of its jurisdiction over extraterritorial events is not only consistent with but required by the applicable rules.

    The essential rights of the individual are proclaimed in the Americas on the basis of equality and nondiscrimination, "without distinction as to race, nationality, creed, or sex. Although this usually refers to persons who are within the territory of a state, in certain instances it can refer to extraterritorial actions, when the person is present in the territory of a state but subject to the control of another state, generally through the actions of that state's agents abroad.

    The European Commission on Human Rights has ruled on this matter in the case brought by Cyprus against Turkey following the Turkish invasion of that island. In its complaint, Cyprus alleged that the European Convention had been violated in the part of its territory occupied by Turkish forces. Turkey, for its part, maintained that, under Article 1 of the European Convention, the competence of the Commission was limited to the examination of actions allegedly committed by a state party in its own national territory and that Turkey could not be found to have violated the Convention since it had not extended its jurisdiction to Cyprus.

    The European Commission rejected that argument, as follows:.

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    The Commission finds that this term is not, as submitted by the respondent Government, equivalent to or limited to the national territory of the High contracting Party concerned. It is clear from the language, in particular of the French text, and the object of this article, and from the purpose of the Convention as a whole, that the High contracting Parties are bound to secure the said rights and freedoms to all persons under their actual authority and responsibility, whether that authority is exercised within their own territory or abroad.

    In the case sub lite, the petitioners stated that their allegations were guided by the provisions of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. The Commission has examined the evidence and finds that the victims died as a consequence of direct actions taken by agents of the Cuban State in international airspace. The fact that the events took place outside Cuban jurisdiction does not limit the Commission's competence ratione loci , because, as previously stated, when agents of a state, whether military or civilian, exercise power and authority over persons outside national territory, the state's obligation to respect human rights continues--in this case the rights enshrined in the American Declaration.

    The Commission finds conclusive evidence that agents of the Cuban State, although outside their territory, placed the civilian pilots of the "Brothers to the Rescue" organization under their authority. Consequently, the Commission is competent ratione loci to apply the American Convention extraterritorially to the Cuban State in connection with the events that took place in international airspace on February 24, Generally recognized principles of international law indicate, first, that this is a rule that may be waived, either expressly or by implication, by the State having the right to invoke it, as this Court has already recognized see Viviana Gallardo et al.

    Series A, para.

    Lou Drendel- Nr. 6002

    Second, the objection asserting the non-exhaustion of domestic remedies, to be timely, must be made at an early stage of the proceedings by the State entitled to make it, lest a waiver of the requirement be presumed. In consideration of this, and with no evidence other than that contained in the case documents, the Commission concludes that the Cuban State has tacitly declined to make an objection asserting the nonexhaustion of domestic remedies. Evidence in the case at hand. The Commission will now present the documents and other evidence, which have been thoroughly examined and which provide indications for reaching a decision regarding the events of the afternoon of 24 February , when the four civilian pilots from Brothers to the Rescue lost their lives, allegedly as a result of actions taken by agents of the Cuban State.

    Charles F. Leonard, aviation expert, during the civil trial in the U. Stephen J.

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    Schnably, expert in international law, during the civil trial in the U. Analysis of the evidence with regard to the material perpetrators of the incident. After assessing the evidence, the Commission must analyze the events of 24 February and determine whether they cause the Cuban State to incur in international responsibility for the alleged violation of rights enshrined in the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. In other words, the Commission must ascertain whether the Cuban State is responsible for the death of the four civilian pilots and, consequently, whether the three elements that cause a State to be internationally responsible are present, namely i whether there existed an action or a failure to act that violated an obligation enshrined in a rule of international law currently in force, which in this case would be the American Declaration; ii whether that action or a failure to act can be attributed to the State in its capacity as a juridical person, and iii whether harm or damage was caused as a result of the illicit act.

    One of the pieces of evidence that casts light on the substance of the complaint is the report by the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO , which is included in the file on this case. Following the incident, during its th session on 6 March the ICAO Council adopted a resolution regarding the downing of two private U.

    The ICAO studied this issue in response to a request made by the United Nations Security Council on 27 February and in consideration of the requests made by the governments of the USA and Cuba for an exhaustive investigation of the incident to be conducted. With regard to the events, the ICAO report establishes that the Brothers to the Rescue pilots and followers met at a hangar at Opa Locka airport, located in south Florida, in the morning of 24 February , and that at a. However, due to other commitments on the part of some of the pilots, the flight did not leave at a. The pilots returned to the hangar after a.

    At p. Cuban air defense radar detected aircraft to the north of Parallel 24N.

    The Area 51 File: Secret Aircraft and Soviet MiGs

    They took off at p. This conflicted with the ICAO principle that interception of civil aircraft should be undertaken only as a last resort. Neither Cuba nor the United States had ratified it. Personnel and passengers on board the Majesty of the Seas and the crew of the fishing boat Tri-Liner observed the destruction of an aircraft NS as well as the later destruction of another aircraft NS. An observer on duty in an observation post on shore in Havana and the yachtsman on the sailing boat heard and saw one event, but neither of them was able to tell whether he saw the destruction of the first or the second aircraft.

    Regarding the witnesses, the ICAO states that the watchkeeping staff on the bridge of the Majesty of the Seas, at hours, observed an explosion in the air and the debris that fell into the sea. Several passengers and other members of the crew also saw the explosion and the falling debris. The ICAO further notes that a crewman of the fishing boat Tri-Liner heard and saw the explosion directly overhead and called the master, who was below deck.